Tuesday, 17 April 2012

Conduct and Disciplinary Rules – Glossary D to G

Death while under suspension: If a suspended employee dies during suspension, the period of suspension should be treated as duty for all purposes and his family paid for that period full pay and allowances to which he would have been entitled had he not been suspended, adjusting the subsistence allowance already paid.
Glossary D to G

Deemed suspension: Sub-rule (2) Rule 10 of CCS (CCA) Rules creates a fiction that a government servant though not placed under suspension by an order of the competent authority, is in law regarded as having been placed under suspension by an order of the competent authority.
Defence Assistant: A Govt. servant or a retired Govt. servant or a legal practitioner assisting the delinquent Government servant in a departmental inquiry.
Delegate: A person authorized to act on behalf of or as a representative of another, the action of such authorizing.
Delegation of power-quasi-judicial: The disciplinary/appellate/reviewing authorities exercise quasi-judicial powers and as such, they cannot delegate their powers to their subordinates.
Delegation of power-quasi-judicial-partial delegation: A well-established principle in case of delegation of quasi-judicial function is that where a power is entrusted to the personal judgment of a quasi-judicial authority, such trust cannot be delegated.
However, a partial delegation has been conceded. It may not be practically possible for a quasi-judicial authority to personally hear the evidence that may be presented before it. It has accordingly been conceded that it is permissible for such authority to delegate the function of hearing parties and taking evidence, provided the authority itself gives the decision after final hearing.
Delinquent: A person who fails or neglects to do what law or obligation requires him to do; a person who is alleged to have committed a misconduct for which proceedings are initiated or continuing against him.
Demonstration is a public display of group feeling especially towards a person, cause or action of public interest.
De novo proceeding: Fresh proceeding.
Dies non: In service terms, “dies non” means a day, which cannot be treated as duty for any purpose. It does not constitute break in service. But the period treated as ‘dies non’ does not qualify as service for pensionary benefits or increment.
Disciplinary Authority: The term ‘Disciplinary Authority’ has been interpreted in the Rules to mean ‘the authority competent under these rules [CCS (CCA) Rules] to impose on a Government servant any of the penalties specified in Rule 11.
Disciplinary proceedings can be explained as the proceedings taken with a view to imposing a departmental punishment on an employee on account of some alleged misconduct. These proceedings are a matter of discipline within the organization.
Dismissal and removal from service: The only difference in the punishment of dismissal and removal is that in case of dismissal the employee is disqualified from future employment while in case of removal he is not debarred from getting future employment.”
Embezzlement: Dishonest misappropriation of property by a person who comes in possession thereof lawfully.
Evidence: Evidence means and includes
(i) all statements which the Court permits or requires to be made before it by witnesses, in relation to matters of fact under inquiry; such statements are called oral evidence;
(ii) all documents produced for the inspection of the Court; such documents are called documentary evidence.
Examination in chief: The examination of witness by the party who calls him is known as examination-in-chief. It is a process by which a witness narrates before the Inquiry Officer the facts, which are within his personal knowledge and are relevant to the matter under inquiry. The normal procedure is that a witness should state whatever he has to say, verbally and in the presence of the inquiry officer and the charged employee.
Expedient: Advantageous; fit; proper; suitable to the circumstances of the case.
As per clause (iii) to Rule 19 of CCS (CCA) Rules where the President is satisfied that in the interest of the security of the State it is not expedient to hold any inquiry in the manner provided in CCS (CCA) Rules the disciplinary authority may consider the circumstances of the case and make such orders thereon as deems fit, notwithstanding anything contained in Rule 14 to Rule 18 of CCS (CCA) Rules.
Exonerate: To release a person or property from liability.
Ex parte enquiry: Ex parte means from or on one side only. In ex parte proceedings, the entire gamut of the enquiry has to be gone through. The difference between other enquiries in which both the sides participate and the ex parte enquiry is that in ex parte inquiry, the defence side will be absent. However, the absence of the defence side should not persuade the inquiry officer to make short of the whole proceedings and to record that the charges are established having no regard to evidence brought on record.
Expert evidence, oral or documentary is obtained on special skill or processional knowledge, which may be relevant to decide the issues in a case. Examples are opinion of a handwriting expert, a medical practitioner, architect, engineer, and the like.
Finding: The conclusion of a judicial proceeding in respect of an issue, action or trial.
Forfeiture of service: Loss of service. Generally in case of resignation, removal or dismissal from service the entire service is forfeited. In case of break in service, the past service is forfeited.
Functus officio: One who has fulfilled his office or is out of office; an authority who has performed the act authorized so that the authority is exhausted.
The Inquiring Authority in a departmental inquiry becomes functus officio after he signs and submits his report. In other words, his function and authority as inquiry officer comes to end after he signs and submits his report to the disciplinary authority.
Gherao: Gherao literally means encircle or to surround. It has been defined to mean “a physical blockade of a target, either by encirclement or forcible occupation. The target may be a place or persons, usually the managerial or supervisory staff of an industrial establishment. The blockade may be complete or partial and is invariably accompanied by wrongful restraint, and/or wrongful confinement and occasionally by assault, criminal trespass, mischief to person and property, unlawful assembly and various other criminal offences…In short to achieve the object not by peaceful means but by violence.”
Go slow strike: A planned slowing down of industrial production on the part of labour until certain demands are met.
“Wilful go slow is one of the serious misconduct which, even the Supreme Court has laid down, is a pernicious activity per se. The words “per se” are of some importance because the Supreme Court has laid down in Bharat Sugar Mills case that certain misconducts alone will warrant dismissal and in such cases, merely because the worker has put in large number of years of service will not necessarily lead to the conclusion that the order of dismissal constituted a disproportionate punishment”.
Government servant means a person who-
is a member of a Service or holds a civil post under the Union, and includes any such person on foreign service or whose services are temporarily placed at the disposal of a State Government, or a local or other authority;
is a member of a Service or holds a civil post under a State Government, and whose services are temporarily placed at the disposal of the Central Government;
is in the service of a local or other authority and whose services are temporarily placed at the disposal of the Central Government.
Grave: “Grave-held, connotes enormity of misconduct in juxtaposition with technical, trifle or misconduct simpliciter. Grave misconduct- the word grave intent to indicate super-eminent or a very high degree of misconduct.”
Gross misconduct: Misconduct of a flagrant nature.
Gross negligence: Negligence marked by total or nearly total indifference to the consequences of an act.

Conduct and Disciplinary Rules – Glossary A to C

                                                 Conduct and Disciplinary Rules
Glossary A to C

Abet means to encourage, incite.
Abettor is one who abets the commission of a crime and is present or nearby during the act.
Absolve: To pronounce clear of guilt or blame.
Accused is a person against whom an allegation has been made that he has committed an offence or who is charged with an offence.
Acquit is to set free or deliver from the charge of an offence after trial.
Act: A law made by competent legislature.
Actori incumbit onus probandi: The burden of proof lies on the plaintiff or the prosecution.

Ad hoc disciplinary authority: In a case where the prescribed appointing or disciplinary authority is unable to function as the disciplinary authority in respect of an official, on account of his being personally concerned with the charges or being a material witness in support of the charges, then an ad hoc disciplinary authority is nominated for that case.
Adjudicate: To try and determine judicially.
Appeal: Appeal is a proceeding taken before a superior court or authority for reversing or modifying decision of an inferior court or authority on ground of error.
Appoint means to designate a person to discharge the duties of an office or trust.
Arbitrary: Depending upon the will or pleasure, based on mere opinion or preference, hence capricious.
Arbitrariness being opposed to reasonableness is an antithesis to law. There cannot, however, be any exact definition of arbitrariness, neither can there by any strait-jacket formula evolved therefor, since it is dependent on the varying facts and circumstances of each case.
Audi alteram partem means that both the sides must be heard in a case before it is decided, or that no one shall be condemned unheard. This is one of the rules of natural justice.
Bias may be defined as a preconceived opinion or a predisposition or predetermination to decide a case or an issue in particular manner, so much, so that such predisposition does not leave the mind open to conviction. It is, in fact, a condition of mind, which sways judgments and renders the judge unable to exercise impartially in a particular case.
Becoming conduct: Becoming conduct as defined in Union of India v. K.K. Garg, should conform to the four criteria, namely,
It should be in conformity with the ordinary norms of decency and morality prevalent in the society in which he lives;
It should be in consonance with the laws of the land, which he is bound to respect;
It should not be against the policies of the Govt. which he serves; and
There is not a deliberate breach of departmental rules by the employee.
Benefit of doubt: The advantage derived from doubt about guilt or a possible error of the evidence.
Bigamy: Bigamy is second marriage during the life of the spouse. It is an offence under Section 17 of the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955.
Bona fide: In good faith.
Books or documents of reference: Encyclopaedia, dictionaries and other authoritative treatises on different subjects and important and authentic documents of which the court may take judicial notice and to which it may refer without the same being formally proved.
Break in service: A period of unauthorised absence of employees working in industrial establishments during a strike which is declared illegal shall be deemed to cause an interruption or break in service unless otherwise decided by the competent authority.
In the case of other employees, unauthorised absence because of action in combination or in concerted manner shall be deemed to cause break in service.
Bribe: A reward or gift bestowed or promised with a view to perverting the judgment or decision or corrupting the conduct of a judge or other officer.
Taking or demanding bribe is a misconduct. It is also an offence punishable under Section 161 of the Indian Penal Code.
Bribery: The offer or acceptance of a bribe.
Burden of proof: The onus of proving the charges or allegations. When a person is bound to prove the existence of any fact, it is said that the burden of proof lies on that person.
It needs no emphasis that in a departmental inquiry, the onus of establishing a charge against the delinquent official is on the presenting officer or the prosecution. The finding of the inquiry officer should be based of materials presented during enquiry. If the Inquiry Officer places the onus of disproving the charge on the charged employee, the case of the department would straightaway fall.
Censure: An order of “censure” is formal and public act intended to convey that the person concerned has been guilty of some blameworthy act or omission for which it has been found necessary to award him a formal punishment, and nothing can amount to a “censure” unless it is intended to be such a formal punishment and imposed for “good and sufficient reason” after following the prescribed procedure.
Circumstantial evidence is based on circumstances, which get established by either oral or documentary evidence on the point under inquiry. Though the circumstantial evidence has to be assessed with great caution but it will be wrong to think that circumstantial evidence is weak evidence. A well-knit circumstantial evidence can reasonably lead to a correct conclusion. “For the purpose of a departmental inquiry, complaint, certainly not frivolous, but substantiated by circumstantial evidence, is enough.”
Civil Post: Civil post is a post, not connected with defence and outside the regularly constituted civil services.
Classification of Posts: Classification of civil posts under the Union as Group ‘A’, Group ‘B’, Group ‘C’ and Group ‘D’ posts.
Common Proceedings: Where two or more Government servants are concerned in any case disciplinary action may be taken against all of them in a common proceeding, under order from competent authority, in stead of separate proceeding against each of them.
Compassionate allowance is a kind of pension that may be grated to a Government servant who is dismissed or removed from service.
Complainant is the party who makes the complaint before a competent authority.
The rule is that if a general law is broken, any person has a right to complain, whether he himself has suffered a particular injury or not.
Compulsory retirement is a kind of retirement ordered as a measure of penalty under CCS (CCA) Rules.
Compulsory retirement pension is a kind of pension granted to a Government servant who is compulsorily retired from service as a measure of penalty.
Confession: The action of confessing (to own or admit as a fault) or acknowledging one’s guilt; an admission of guilt by a person who has committed a crime.
“We have the best witness in an accused who confess the charge”.
While there could be no better evidence than ones own confession, yet it is not safe to act upon the same when it is alleged to have been extracted by coercion, especially by the affected party. Such a confession could still be used, if some other independent witness had corroborated it.
Condone: To forgive, overlook, or disregard (a misconduct or offence) without protest or censure.
Condonation of break in service: The past services lost due to imposition of break in service will be allowed to count if the competent authority condones the break in service. “It is not the intention of the Government to deny the pensionary benefits to the employees is all cases of break of service. The question of condonation of break in service for the purpose of Pension Rules may be considered suo motu without waiting for a representation from the affected officials and orders issued so that the retired employees are not put to financial hardship”.
Condonation of break in service for other purposes may be considered on merits, in case of the employee making a representation expressing unqualified regret, etc.
Conduct: The way a person acts; behaviour.
Government servants are bound to conduct themselves in a way consistent with the faithful discharge of the obligations undertaken by them either expressly or impliedly in accepting the service.
Every Government servant is bound to observe certain rules of conduct and discipline both in relation to his employment and outside his employment. There exist both written (not exhaustive) and unwritten codes of conduct for them which must be observed by every Government servant.
Conduct, which has led to conviction of a Government servant: The original conduct, which constituted the offence for which the Government servant has been convicted.
Conviction itself cannot be equated with misconduct. The basis for imposing departmental penalty under Rule 19 of CCS (CCA) Rules is the conduct, which has led to the conviction and not mere conviction.
Control: Power to check or restrain; superintendence. To regulate; to govern; to have under command.
Conviction: The act of a legal tribunal adjudging a person guilty of an offence.
Criminal proceeding: A proceeding instituted and conducted for the purpose either of preventing the commission of a crime or for fixing the guilt of a crime already committed and punishing the offender.
Currency of penalty: The period for which the penalty prevails or is in currency or is operating.
Currency of penalty-promotion during: To punish a servant and at the same time to promote him during the currency of the punishment may justifiably be termed as self-contradictory.”
“In other words, a penalty of ‘Censure’ is deemed to have become final as soon as it is imposed without any further currency, likewise the penalty of recovery should not be a bar to eligibility for consideration (for promotion).”

Walking could be a useful tool in treating depression


Walking can play a vital role in fighting depression, a study has claimed.
The study in the journal Mental Health and Physical Activity showed walking had a “large effect” on depression.
Vigorous exercise has already been shown to alleviate symptoms of depression, but the effect of less strenuous activities was unclear. One in 10 people may have depression at some point in their lives. The condition can be treated with drugs, but exercise is commonly prescribed by doctors for mild symptoms.

Researchers at the University of Stirling scoured academic studies to find data on one of the mildest forms of exercise, walking. They found eight studies, on a total of 341 patients, which fitted the bill.
The report’s authors showed “walking was an effective intervention for depression” and had an effect similar to other more vigorous forms of exercise.
“Walking has the advantages of being easily undertaken by most people, incurring little or no financial cost and being relatively easy to incorporate into daily living,” they said.
However, they cautioned that much more research needed to be done. There are still questions over how long, how fast and whether walking should take place indoors or outdoors.
Prof. Adrian Taylor, who studies the effects of exercise on depression, addiction and stress at the University of Exeter, told the BBC: “The beauty of walking is that everybody does it.”
“There are benefits for a mental health condition like depression,” he added.
Mr. Taylor said there were ideas about exercise being a distraction from worries, giving a sense of control and releasing “feel-good” hormones.
Source : www.thehindu.com dtd 14/04/2012

Computer Companies - Top 10 Computer Manufacturing Companies in The World

Computers and laptops / notebooks have become a part of our life. Life without a computer is next to impossible in this age of fast growing world of electronics and technology.
As the demand for computers grew, more and more companies stepped in the business to manufacture computers and computer hardware and software. Some of these companies manufacture all computer parts and sell under their own brand, while others manufacture only some of the hardware and few others develop only software. Computer companies like Intel and AMD manufacture computer processor and other high-end hardware. Companies like Microsoft and Google produce only computer software with some exception. Some companies even manufacture computer hardware parts on contract basis for OEM companies.
This article will feature the top 10 computer manufacturing companies in the world. These companies are selected based on their global market share.

Top 10 Computer Manufacturers

  1. HP : HP (Hewlett-Packard) is a leading American multinational computer system manufacturer in the world. They manufacturer printers, laptops, computers, servers, storage devices, networking, software, enterprise solutions and much more. 
  2. Acer : Acer ranks among the world's top five branded PC vendors. This Taiwan-based multinational computer technology and electronics corporation that manufactures desktop and laptop PCs, personal digital assistants (PDAs), servers, storage devices, displays, smartphones and peripherals and hardware.
  3. Dell : Dell is a American multinational information technology corporation. Thic company provides technology solutions, services and support. Dell manufacturers Laptops, Netbooks, Tablet PCs, Desktops, Monitors, Servers, Storage and other computer-relater hardware.
  4. Lenovo : Lenovo is a Chinese-based multinational computer technology corporation. This company manufacturers desktops, notebook, personal computers, workstations, servers, storage drives, IT management software, and computer-related products and services.
  5. Toshiba : Toshiba is a Japanese multinational company. Toshiba is a manufacturer and suppliers of all kinds of electrical products including laptops, notebooks, computer desktop and other computer related products and services.
  6. IBM : International Business Machines (IBM) is a United States based multinational technology and consulting company. IBM manufactures and sells computer hardware and software, infrastructure, hosting and consulting services.
  7. Fujitsu : Fujitsu is a Japanese multinational computer hardware and IT services company. Fujitsu is a leading provider of IT products and services including hardware, software, networking, business solutions, and more.
  8. NEC : NEC is a Japanese multinational IT company. The company provides information technology (IT) and network solutions. NEC Corporation is one of the world's leading providers of Internet, broadband network and enterprise business solutions.
  9. Apple : Apple Inc is an American multinational company. The company's main focus is on design and marketing of consumer electronics, computer software, and personal computers. Best known products of Apple include iPod and iTunes, Mac laptop and desktop computers, the OS X operating system, and the revolutionary iPhone and iPad.
  10. Gateway Computers : Gateway Incorporated is a subsidiary company of Acer Inc. The company manufactures and markets computer hardware, personal computers, computer monitors, servers, and computer accessories.

Ten Ways to Help Your Customers Get Serious About Passwords

Practice what you preach. This is one mantra many computer repair technicians live by. Yet one area that we’re still pretty hypocritical about is passwords. Be honest with yourself: are all of your credentials following the generally accepted rules of password complexity? It’s admittedly a hard principle to live by, seeing as we are inundated with passwords for what seems to be every service we deal with. Our customers are in the same position, and the onus is on us as computer repair technicians to ensure that they have a sound password policy and are sticking to it.

Computer security expert Steve Gibson covers password strength and complexity at length during his usual appearance on many Security Now podcasts. But he recently penned an excellent article for Consumer Reports magazine on some common password creation tips that he believes work well. He recommends that users employ password techniques such as complex passphrases or sentences. At the very least, Steve says, passwords must “grow the haystack” which refers to reducing the possibility that a hacker could easily perform a common-knowledge or dictionary attack on a given password. His article is a must-read for any informed computer technician.
Google’s own Small Business Blog highlighted this growing problem recently with an excellent post providing some basic guidelines on good password policy as well. However, I want to go one step further and outline ten specific ways you can help your customers set strong passwords, manage credentials, and juggle the security/convenience complex. I employ a mixture of these techniques for clients of my company FireLogicand they indeed stand the test of time.

10) Use a password strength checker to educate your customers
You can preach about password complexity rules all day to your customers, but showing them something visual always works best. For this reason, I employ the use of password strength checkers when customers doubt what I have to say about the credentials they choose. One very simply tool is provided by Microsoft which offers an easy to understand visual strength indication for how good a password is. If you really want to hit the point home, Steve Gibson’s company GRC offers a brutally honest password checker which is technically very accurate but perhaps a bit harsh on anything but the most carefully crafted passwords.

9) Use a high-security password generator
Asking customers to remember completely random 256 bit passwords may be a bit impractical. But for some applications, like high-stakes wireless networks employed in multi-tenant office buildings, this could be your saving grace for creating super secure wifi networks. Once again, Gibson’s GRC website offers a High Security Password Generator which creates unique various bit length passwords on each reload of the page. These passwords are very useful for WPA or WEP wireless deployments or other needs where strong, random credentials are a priority.

8) Offer SSO (Single Sign On) integration when possible
It’s a known fact: the more passwords we stack on users, and the more complex they are, the likelihood that they will get sloppy with password management increases exponentially. Help your business customers avoid “post it note password” solutions and offer to integrate core technology services with SSO when it’s available. Many common services like email, Active Directory, and other systems can be tied together with one set of credentials. For example, businesses on Google Apps can leverage Google Apps Directory Sync to tie into Active Directory, and likewise, other cloud services can also piggyback off Google Apps (most of the excellentZoho suite offers this.) Asking business users to adhere to one set of strict credentials is an easy sell and great way to enforce common password standards.

7) Phones need passwords now, too!
Most users carry around mini PCs right in their pockets and they overlook it. Those smartphones we all know and love contain massive amounts of information about a given person’s digital life, and many times, offer easy access to things like bank accounts and emails. At the very least, educate your customers about using simple password locks on their smartphones (backed by phone-tracing location services to take it one step further.) I’d even recommend that you push users to ensure they have the ability to remote wipe their phones in the case of theft. BlackBerry has been offering this for years, and iPhones and Android devices have similar functionality now too. An unlocked lost phone is as damaging as a lost laptop – perhaps worse.

6) Educate customers on avoiding passwords with personal information
As techs, we’ve known for years that using any part of our phone number, social security #, address, etc are very insecure methods for choosing passwords. Cyber thiefs know that people choose paths of least resistance when making passwords and in turn exploit this very easily. Don’t merely implement enforcements on core systems that your customers use which prevent this – let them know WHY these passwords need to be avoided!

5) No legitimate company EVER asks for passwords over email
Most modern email systems worth their salt should notify users about phishing attacks in email (Google Apps has been superb at this for years.) However, things will fall through the cracks and users should know that they should NEVER respond to any kind of email that asks for credentials to a service they use. Why would a bank ever ask you for your password – don’t they already control the system to begin with? Common sense is great, but sometimes users need reminders, especially when they are less technically savvy. A good computer technician will always offer solid education to his/her customers in this regard.

4) The “forever” password is just plain old bad policy
What’s a forever password, you ask? One that never changes. For ease of use, many companies allow employees to set it and forget it when it comes to passwords. Discourage your customers from following this methodology. The likelihood that a password may get written down and found at some point increases proportionately when there are no password age requirements on systems. Almost every major technology offers this these days, and Microsoft has a great guide on the various restrictions a company should place on passwords.

3) Push your larger customers to get an IT audit
Seeing is believing, and an IT audit can help your customers see exactly what is wrong with their IT policies when it comes to security. There are many firms that offer such audits in the form of ethical hacking, social engineering penetration, and other similar services. These are real eye openers and can be the difference between complacency and pre-emptive action.

2) Limit exposure to administrative passwords
Passwords are only as secure as the people who are trusted with safeguarding them. Password books that float around an office which contain admin passwords to core network and server hardware along with email systems is not only a security hole, but an attack waiting to happen. Any kind of master password list should at the very least be encrypted in some kind of password management tool like the excellent free KeePass. Access to those files should then be restricted to key company personnel and the computer technician (like yourself) responsible for their maintenance. A smaller footprint greatly reduces chances of password theft.

1) All internet-connected computers ALWAYS need quality anti-malware software
This should almost go without saying but many people still (sadly) overlook this. Good security software goes a long way, and all laptops and desktops that touch the internet need to be protected these days. Even Macs are getting pummeled with malware on a daily basis. Free products are decent, but nothing beats a paid security program this day in age. My favorite continues to be ESET’s award-winning NOD32, with Kasperskyalso offering a solid product. Most of the damaging malware these days is coded with the full intent of stealing critical passwords and information from computers to allow hackers entry into their victim’s so-called “gold mines” of digital treasure. Even the strongest passwords can be sniffed out by malware prowling on an unprotected system.

Whether you are a computer repair technician that supports only residential customers, or have a growing small business following, the above facets of solid password policy can be applied. Remember that YOU are considered the expert when it comes to security, and customers rely on YOU to be their source of education on such matters.

How to create a bootable Windows 7 USB flash drive

The USB flash drive has replaced the floppy disk drive as the best storage medium for transferring files, but it also has its uses as a replacement for CDs and DVDs. USB drives tend to be higher in capacity than disc media, but since they are more expensive, they cannot (yet) really be used as a replacement. There are reasons why you would, however, choose a USB device over a DVD disc, and bootable software is definitely one of them. Not only is it faster to copy data such as setup files from a USB drive, but during usage the access times are also significantly faster. Therefore, installing something like Windows 7 will work that much faster from a USB drive than from a DVD (and of course, is particularly useful for the PCs without an optical drive; this isn't something we should just leave for the pirates to enjoy).
This guide will show you two different ways to create a USB flash drive that works just like a Windows 7 DVD. In order to follow this guide, you'll need a USB flash drive with at least 4GB of free space and a copy of the Windows 7 installation disc.

Windows 7 USB DVD Download Tool

You are normally given this tool when you purchase from the online Microsoft Store. windows_7_usb_1.png The easiest way to turn a USB flash drive into a bootable Windows 7 installer is by using the tool Microsoft offers, cunningly named the Windows 7 USB/DVD Download Tool. To get started, download the installer [exe] from Microsoft.com and follow the basic steps to put it onto your computer; you can put it on the computer you plan to install Windows 7 on or another one, it doesn't matter.
windows_7_usb_2.png Once it is installed, it should create an icon on your desktop, so double-click that to open. If you can't find it, use the search function in the Start Menu with a keyword like "USB." Launching it should give you the above screen, and step one is to find the Windows 7 .ISO file. The tool only accepts .ISO images, so we recommend that you convert yours if it's in a different DVD image format.
windows_7_usb_3.png Step two is straightforward: simply choose USB device.
windows_7_usb_4.png In step three, all you have to do is make sure that you are choosing the correct USB device. If you have other data on the device, move it to your hard drive, another USB device, or somewhere else before proceeding.
windows_7_usb_5.png The tool will prompt you if it detects data on the device. Once your data is backed up elsewhere, click Erase USB Device.
windows_7_usb_6.png You will get another prompt warning you that all the data will be wiped. Click Yes to continue.
windows_7_usb_7.png The format will be very quick, while the copying of the files will take a little bit more time (about 10 to 15 minutes).
windows_7_usb_8.png Once the process is complete, you should get the above confirmation message. At this point you can close the tool and use the USB drive to install Windows 7. Remember that you'll have to choose to boot off the USB drive. Before doing so, you may want to open up the USB drive and double click on setup.exe to see if everything looks okay. If you want to be able to do this manually, see the next section, and if you want to be able to install any edition of Windows 7, skip to the section after that.


Creating an Image in Windows 7

Click on Start go to Getting Started and then select Back up your files.

Next click on the Create a system image hyperlink.

Decide where you want to save the image. You can choose an external drive, burn to multiple DVD’s, or store it on a network location.

You can include other drives if you want as well but remember that will add to the size of the final image.

At the confirmation screen notice the amount of space the image may take. If something doesn’t look right you can still go back from this point and make adjustments.

A progress meter is displayed while the images is created and backed up. In this example a disk of about 15GB in size took under 20 minutes backed up to an external drive. Times will vary depending on your system and where you’re backing it up to.

After the process is complete you get the option to create a system repair disc which you should do and make sure to save it in a secure location.

When it comes time to restore the image, you will be able to use the System Recovery Options to get the system back.
via-sa dop

Tips For Cool Summer

Heat and humidity can cause a host of skin problems. Here's how to deal with them.
With the mercury rising every day, heat and humidity now play a major role in our lives. This also causes a host of skin problems, most of which can be dealt with quite easily.
Prickly heat
Excessive sweating and increased dead cell turnover blocks sweat glands and causes a rash commonly known as “prickly heat”, especially in the folds of the skin and on the trunk and back.

Take cool showers.
Wear loose clothes.
Apply talcum powder after a bath.
Apply calamine lotion on the rashes
Take anti-allergy tablet at night.
Heat, humidity, dead skin cells and oil tend to clog the skin's pores leading to comedones or blackheads and eventually acne.
Apply a ‘mud-pack' once a week.
A clear gut.
Drink plenty of water.
Take supplements of Vitamin A, zinc and antioxidants.
Apply erythromycin gel at bedtime
If this does not help consult a dermatologist.
Also called ‘acne-rosacea', this is characterised by red and inflamed skin especially on the cheek, chin and forehead. It can also lead to tiny boils on the cheeks and severe acne if left untreated.
Avoid direct sunlight.
Use a soap-free face wash.
Use a good sunscreen.
Reduce stress.
Use a calamine lotion with sunscreen in the morning.
Take an antacid or aloe vera juice in the morning on an empty stomach.
A bland diet
Also see a dermatologist for a proper treatment plan.
Fungal infections
Fungi thrive in humid weather and areas where there is less aeration like in the folds of the skin especially when people wear tight clothes, shoes all day and synthetic clothing.
Have a shower often.
Apply antifungal powder after a bath.
Take anti-allergic tablet at bedtime for a week.
Apply anti-fungal cream on affected areas at bedtime.
Wear open sandals.
Also see a dermatologist in case you require medication.
This is actually the body's defence against strong sunlight. Sun burn, on the other hand, can be quite uncomfortable if severe. It results in redness, peeling of skin and itching.
Avoid sunlight as much as possible.
Use a calamine lotion during the day
Take an allergy tablet during the day and night for a week along with a mild steroid lotion at bedtime. This will bring down the inflammation and peeling dramatically.
Dandruff is the result of over secretion of oil on the scalp mixed with dead cell, sweat and pollution. This leads to ‘scale' formation on the scalp, which is not only unhygienic but can also lead to hair fall, itching and eventually pimples on the forehead and back.
Wash your hair often in summer.
Use a medicated shampoo containing two per cent ketaconozole and zinc pyrithione (ZPTO)
Apply home remedies like lemon juice or curds on scalp before washing.
Increased pigmentation
Normal skin and skin with pigmentation problems seem to look darker when exposed to the sun. This is because exposure to sun activates the melanin to rise to the upper layers thereby increasing pigmentation.
Avoid direct sunlight.
Use sunscreen mixed with calamine lotion at least 2-3 times a day.
Use an umbrella and sunglasses while going out and sun visors for the car.
Use a skin lightening cream at bedtime.
Take supplements of Vitamin C, folic acid and antioxidants.
Body odour
An unpleasant body smell is not only due to increased sweat accumulation but also due to bacterial decomposition of sweat.
To avoid this
Wear loose, cotton clothing.
Shower 2-3 times a day.
Use a medicated soap
Use antifungal powder and deodorant
Reduce caffeine and drink herbal and green tea.
Use fragrance on clothes rather than on skin to prevent pigmentation.

Do you know Vigilance matters?

Some questionnaires on Vigilance matters are given below to get sound vigilance knowledge to face the vigilance cases. 
The articles 309,310,311 and 320 of th  Constitution of India which concerns a government servants.

1.What is Vigilance?
Ans-Keeping a watch to maintain the integrity of employees in an organization.

2. What are Vigilance  Activities?
Ans.- Preventive, Examination  of procedures to  remove loop holes, Regularand surprise   inspections,      Monitoring the activities of the  employees through returns, Detective, Investigation  of complaints or any  other  information regarding Irregularities, Punitive and Punishment  to the guilty.
3.- What are the articles  of the Constitution  of India which concerns  a government servants? 
Ans.-   Article  309 - Recruitment and conditions of service of persons serving the Union or State                           
   Article 310- Tenure of office of persons serving the Union or a State          
   Article 311 -  Dismissal, removal or reduction in rank of persons employed in civil capacities     
   under the Union or a state 
   Article 320 - Functions of Public Service Commission.
4.-Who  is authorized to frame  rules to regulate the recruitment and conditions  of service of Central  Government Employees?
Ans.- The  President
5.- Name  the two essential features  of the inquiry provided  in Article 311. 
Ans.- The  Government servant has to be informed  of charges and  given reasonable opportunity to defend himself.
6.- What  is the full form  of CCS (CCA) Rules?
Ans:- Central  Civil Services (Classification, Control and  Appeal) Rules.
7:- In  which year the CCS  (CCA) Rules were framed? 
8.What  is suspension ?
Ans:- The act of  officially removing some body from their job  for a period of time.
9:- Is  suspension a punishment? 
Ans:- No.  The purpose is to facilitate proper inquiry.
10:- Can  advance for procurement  of a conveyance be  given to a Govt  servant under suspension? 
11:-  Who is the authority  can  impose a penalty on  a Govt. Servant?
Ans:- The  Disciplinary Authority.
12:- Name the authority who can impose any penalty on  any govt servant?
Ans:- The  President
13:- When is Central Vigilance Commission to be consulted
Ans:- When  Group A  gazetted  officer is involved and there  is a vigilance angle
(i)  corruption,  cheating,   bribery,  misappropriation,   fraud and lack  of integrity; 
           (ii)  Abuse of official power/authority for self gain or for anyone else; 
           (iii) Substantial loss to government as a result of grave/ deliberate negligence or indulgence in nepotism;
           (iv)  Possession of disproportionate assets.
           (v)   Flagrant violation of  rules/ regulations/ procedures
14:- What  are the two stages  at which CVC is  consulted? 
Ans:- (i) The first stage advice – Commission indicates the action to be taken against the Government servant, whose conduct has been investigated.  
(ii)  The second stage advice – Commission considers the report of the Inquiry officer and advises the disciplinary authority about the penalty to be imposed.
15:- Can   an enquiry be conducted in respect of retired Govt. servant for an act done  by him during any  period of his service?
Ans:-  Proceedings  can be initiated after retirement
         Only with the sanction of the President
         Only in respect of any event which took place within four years of such institution
16:- Which  minor penalty cannot  be imposed unless oral  inquiry has been conducted? 
Ans:-Withholding of increments for more than three years or with cumulative effect or effecting pension.
17:- Which  penalty results in the  forfeiture of the past  service? 
Ans:- Removal  or Dismissal
18:- What  is the name of  the allowance given  to a Govt servant  under suspension. Which  Fundamental Right guarantees  that? 
Ans:- Subsistence  Allowance, Article 21 (Part III of the Constitution)
19:- Which  deductions are not permitted  from the subsistence  allowance? 
Ans:- Income  tax, House Rent, Electricity  & water charges,  installments of repayment  of loans and advances,  if necessary at revised  rates, CGHS contribution and contributions towards  CGE Group Insurance  Scheme shall be deducted  from the subsistence  allowance.   Premium  due to PLI, amount  due to cooperative societies  and refund of GPF  advance can be deducted  with the CONSENT of  the Govt. servant. Subscriptions  to GPF, amount due  on court attachments  and recovery of loss  caused to the Govt  cannot be deducted from  the subsistence allowance.
20:- Which are the cases, where  no appeal is permissible ?
Ans:- Any  order made by the  President.
      Any order of interlocutory nature or in the nature of step-in-aid of the final disposal of a disciplinary proceeding other than an order of suspension.
    Any order passed by an Inquiry Officer during the course of inquiry. (However, an appeal can be submitted against an order of IO rejecting request for engagement of a Defence Assistant from some outstation.)
21:- What  is the period of  limitation for filing  an appeal against an  order of penalty? 
Ans:- 45  days
22:- Is the disciplinary  framework of government  lays down control only  on employees? 
Ans:- No.  Employees do enjoy certain protection. Enough care  is taken to see that undue hardship  is not caused to the employee  and his  / her family members.
23:- What  are some of the  positive elements Employee  comes across in the  various provisions governing  the service conditions?
Ans:- Application  of Principles of Natural Justice, Protection under Article 311, Grant of Subsistence Allowance and
Entitlement after death etc.
24:-What are Minor penalties?
 Ans:- Censure, Withholding of Promotion, Recovery from Pay of whole or part of any pecuniary loss caused by him to the Government by negligence or breach of orders etc, Reduction to lower stage in the time-scale of pay for a period not exceeding three years, without cumulative effect and not affecting his pension Withholding of  increments
25:-What are Major penalties?
Ans:-Cases  which call for major  penalty i.e Reduction to a lower stage in the time scale of pay, Reduction to a lower time-scale of grade, post or service, Compulsory Retirement, Removal from service and Dismissal from service.
25:- What  is suspension in the eye of Administration? 
Ans:- An administrative action for debarring a Govt  servant from his powers and duties. Temporary deprivation of office pendingregular disciplinary proceedings. Relationship of servant and master does not end. All conditions of service continue to applyNo reduction in rank. Lien also retained. It is not treated a penalty and appeal can be preferred.
26:- When  can a Govt servant  be suspended?  
Ans:-  When  a disciplinary proceeding  is contemplated or pending  against him
  • When in the opinion of the competent authority, he has engaged himself in activities prejudicial to the interest of the security of the state
  • When a case against him in respect of any criminal offence is under investigation, inquiry or trial
When he is involved in dowry death and case is registered under section 304(B) of IPC he shall be suspended as soon as he is arrested, irrespective of the period of detention, or as soon as the charge sheet is filed against him,whichever is earlier.

27:- Circumstances  which justify suspension .
Ans:-When  the Govt servant is  likely to hamper the  proceedings e.g. tempering  with the evidence
·         When his continuation in office is likely to affect office discipline
·         When he is involved in a scandal and it is necessary to demonstrate Govt’s intention to deal firmly with the situation
·         When his continuation in office is against public interest
28:-What is  Administrative  effects during suspension .
Ans:- Govt  servant is not supposed  to attend office or  mark attendance. Entry  card is withdrawn.
  • Scooter or car advance cannot be granted.
  • HBA can be granted.
  • Govt servant can function as Defence Assistant
  • Leave cannot be granted.
  • LTC can be granted only to the family members.
  • Govt servant retains lien on his post.
           Govt servant cannot be sent on training, deputation etc
  • Permission  for Voluntary retirement  during suspension can  be denied by the  competent authority.
  • On attaining the age of superannuation the suspended Govt servant will be retired. Subsistence allowance shall stop. He will be paid only provisional pension.
  • Leave encashment can be withheld if there is possibility of some money becoming recoverable as a result of the proceedings.
  • Permission can be given to appear in Departmental Examination, but promotion will be considered only after finalisaiton of the proceedings.
29:-What is Revocation  of suspension ?
Ans:-Suspension  remains in force till  it is revoked. Order can be revoked at any time by the competent authority.
Suspension automatically comes to an end if penalty of dismissal, removal or compulsory retirement from service is imposed.
In case of death during suspension, it is presumed that there was no suspension at all and full pay and allowances are to be paid.
30:- What Action is done after reinstatement?
Ans:-An  order for regularisation of period of  suspension has to be issued. The period has to be treated as duty if the suspension was wholly unjustified.
  • An order regarding pay and allowances payable for the period of suspension has also to be issued. Full pay and allowances may be given if the suspension was wholly unjustified.
Courtesy : http://tkbsen.com/
Posted: 16 Apr 2012 09:17 AM PDT